Men at a massive gathering at a qat lounge, discarding qat leaf litter on the floor.
qat is a mild social drug that is ubiquitous in the northern mountains, including the capital city of sana’a. each afternoon, all work stops and men purchase plastic bags of legal drug for hours on end of chewing and conversation. boys line country roads selling qat to passing drivers. not to partake in qat, is to be an outcast. many men deprive families of food in order to finance their habit.
before the war, qat has hobbled the yemeni economy. coffee fields, yemen’s indigenous cash crop, had been a tremendous loss of foreign currency to fuel the yemeni economy. qat helped drain precious water.
The end of the main glacier, baishui#1, on 5,596 meter (18,360 ft) mount satseto (to the naxi) and jade dragon snow mountain (to the chinese) has receded 250 meters (825 ft) since 1982. this glacier, the southernmost on the eurasian continent, was only accessible by foot in 1997 but has been accessible by ropeway since 1999. the photo was made in january 2014 and yet there is very little fresh snow despite being at an elevation of 4,000 meters (13123 ft). winters are dry in yunnan but the complete absence of snow in winter is telling. scientists believe, at this rate, the glacier could entirely disappear in the next few decades.
Final image in the volcano series:
rice farmer surveys rice terraces ready at harvest time in bali's rich volcanic soil below batur caldera. the southern side of bali is one great, relatively gentle sloping, volcanic alluvial fan from mt. batur and mt. agung volcanoes creating the perfect, verdant terrain for growing just about anything and irrigating agricultural land using gravity to deliver water. bali, indonesia.
Rice farmer surveys rice terraces ready at harvest time in bali's rich volcanic soil below batur caldera. the southern side of bali is one great, relatively gentle sloping, volcanic alluvial fan from mt. batur and mt. agung volcanoes creating the perfect, verdant terrain for growing just about anything and irrigating agricultural land using gravity to deliver water. bali, indonesia.
Looking over lava flow and a crater from active pacaya volcano toward 3,766m high (12,356 ft) volcan de agua (water volcano), towering in front of 3,763 m (12,346 ft) high volcan de fuego (fire volcano) furthest left and 3,976m (13,045 ft) high volcan acatenango. guatemala. there are 288 volcanoes in guatemala.
Volcanoes give life but they take life as well. mass burial for victims, many unidentified, of merapi volcano: families of victims from the worst eruption of mt. merapi in over 100 years (in 2010), bid farewell to their fallen relatives at a funeral at a public mass grave in a rural area near sleman, java, indonesia. the final estimated death toll from the volcanic eruption was 353 people, with 350,000 temporarily evacuated. java, indonesia.
Storm clouds forming over the volcanoes of lago de atitlan, guatemala. on my first trip to guatemala in 1986, i was told that the far, south side of the lake was dangerous and to be avoided if possible, which i found puzzling because i had imagined the rebels hiding in the vast jungles that used to clothe el petén to the north. the clouds seem to rise from below the horizon adding to the drama because “la falda”, or the skirt of the volcanic mountain range, where coffee is grown, immediately drops down to the plantations of the coastal plain. the s***p of forest that clothes the mountains just above the coffee plantations provided cover to the anti-government guerillas. in fact, santiago atitlan village at the foot of the tallest volcano (center) was the scene of a massacre of 13 villagers by the military four years after that first visit.
Cemetery for the bali aga, descendents of the original balinese, living inside the batur caldera. they do not bury their dead, but lay them out in bamboo cages to decompose under a sacred banyan tree, strangely without stench. the cemetery, which is sandwiched between lake batur and the steep sides of the outer crater, is only accessible by dug out canoe from the village of trunyan. bali, indonesia.
Chimborazo volcano (6,268 metres [20,564 ft]) peeks through a break in the clouds above a kichwa herder returning to her high settlement at 4,100 m (13,451ft) on the desert-like "el arenal" from the crossroads to where her family raises sheep and alpaca. ecuador. between 1986 and 2013 chimborazo experienced a reduction of 21% of its surface ice and an average of a 180 meter increase in the mean elevation the glaciers begin. this means less rain in the ecuadorian andes, due to global warming. to reduce the impact on this fragile "el arenal" ecosystem, kichwa herders have begun to abandon sheep with their hard hoofs and fussy eating habits and reintroduced softer hoofed alpaca, which is a return to the way their ancestors lived.